Oil and its derivatives are the most important pollutants, due to, among other factors, the increasing amounts that have been extracted and processed. Also, carelessness and neglect of safety standards and routine maintenance of equipment (pipelines, terminals, platforms) aggravate the water pollution problems caused by the oil industry

Due to the negative environmental impacts of exploration and production of oil, new more restrictive environmental laws and regulations have been issued. It is estimated that in the United States alone, the oil industry will need to invest about 160 billion dollars in actions to protect the environment over the next 20 years to meet environmental legislation more demanding than currently adopted in Brazil

One of the crucial points to be attacked is the issue of water production, which is generated in this activity, which is increasing in volume as they get older wells and new wells are drilled. .On average for each m³/day of oil produced, 3-4 m³/day of water is produced, although this figure can reach up to 7 m³/day or even more in exploration, drilling and production. The water produced along with oil corresponds to 98% of the effluents. It contains salts, oils and other toxic chemicals in addition to having high temperature and no oxygen.